Labels are the mechanism you use to organize Kubernetes objects. A label is a key-value pair with certain restrictions concerning length and allowed values but without any pre-defined meaning. So you’re free to choose labels as you see fit, for example, to express environments such as ‘this pod is running in production’ or ownership, like ‘department X owns that pod’.
Let’s create a pod that initially has one label (
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mhausenblas/kbe/master/specs/labels/pod.yaml $ kubectl get pods --show-labels NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE LABELS labelex 1/1 Running 0 10m env=development
get pods command note the
--show-labels option that output the
labels of an object in an additional column.
You can add a label to the pod as:
$ kubectl label pods labelex owner=michael $ kubectl get pods --show-labels NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE LABELS labelex 1/1 Running 0 16m env=development,owner=michael
To use a label for filtering, for example to list only pods that have an
owner that equals
michael, use the
$ kubectl get pods --selector owner=michael NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE labelex 1/1 Running 0 27m
--selector option can be abbreviated to
-l, so to select pods that are
$ kubectl get pods -l env=development NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE labelex 1/1 Running 0 27m
Oftentimes, Kubernetes objects also support set-based selectors.
Let’s launch another pod
that has two labels (
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mhausenblas/kbe/master/specs/labels/anotherpod.yaml
Now, let’s list all pods that are either labelled with
env=development or with
$ kubectl get pods -l 'env in (production, development)' NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE labelex 1/1 Running 0 43m labelexother 1/1 Running 0 3m
Other verbs also support label selection, for example, you could remove both of these pods with:
$ kubectl delete pods -l 'env in (production, development)'
Beware that this will destroy any pods with those labels.
You can also delete them normally with:
$ kubectl delete pods labelex $ kubectl delete pods labelexother
Note that labels are not restricted to pods. In fact you can apply them to all sorts of objects, such as nodes or services.